Utah Division of Water Rights
   

Glossary of Water Words

Revised: January 26, 2006

This glossary is a layperson's resource to assist in communication about water right issues. It does not necessarily contain legal definitions. State statutes, rules, court decisions, and qualified legal counsel should be consulted when legal opinion is the objective. This is a collaborative work. We welcome input on additional terms and text improvement.

 
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ABANDONED WELL
well whose purpose and use have been permanently discontinued, or is in such disrepair that it cannot be used.
ABANDONMENT
when a water right has been voluntarily unused for five or more years.
ABBREVIATIONS
for a listing of frequently used abbreviations, click here
ABUTMENT
valley side against which a dam is constructed. Right or left abutments are as viewed when looking downstream.
ABSTRACT OF TITLE
a summary of the conveyance, transfers, and other facts appearing of record and relied upon as evidence of title to real property.
ACCRETION
process of accumulation by flowing water; gradual increase in the flow of a stream due to influent seepage.
ACIDIC
condition of water or soil that contains a sufficient amount of acid substances to lower the pH below 7.0.
ACRE
measure of area equal to 43,560 square feet (640 acres in a Section).
ACRE-FOOT (AF)
unit commonly used to measure volume of water; equal to 43,560 cubic feet, or 325,851 gallons (will cover one acre one foot deep).
ACTIVE STORAGE CAPACITY
amount of reservoir storage that can be released by gravity flow when the reservoir is not spilling.
ADJUDICATION
refers to a judicial process whereby water rights are determined or decreed by a court of law.
ADVERSE USE
establishing a water right by hostile means against all other water rights in a drainage basin. Not legal after 1939.
ADVERTISE
to provide notice, usually by publication of a legal notice in one of more newspapers, of a proposed appropriation of water, change of use of water, or an extension of time in which to submit proof of appropriation.
AFFLUENT STREAM
stream that flows into another stream, a lake; a tributary stream.
AGGRADATION
process by which stream beds, flood plains and the bottoms of other water bodies are raised in elevation by the deposition of material eroded and transported from other areas.
AIR INJECTION
pumping of compressed air into the soil to move water in the unsaturated zone down to the saturated zone.
ALKALI
1) any strongly basic substance capable of neutralizing an acid that is soluble in water. 2) refers to soluble salts in soil, surface or ground water.
ALLUVIAL
adjective referring to soil or earth material that has been deposited by running water.
ALLUVIAL FAN
fan-shaped deposit of generally course material created where a stream flows out onto a gentle plain.
ALLUVIAL STREAM
1) S-shaped channel pattern that is free to meander in a valley. 2) bed materials of silt, clay, sand and gravel are conveyed from upstream.
ANISOTROPY
having physical characteristics which vary in different directions.
ANNUAL FLOOD
highest peak discharge of a stream in a water year.
ANNULUS
in a well, the space between the well casing and the outer wall of the borehole.
APPLICATION
an official written request to the State Engineer for permission to initiate a water right, alter an existing water right, or alter a natural stream channel.
APPROPRIATE
to initiate a water right by requesting and receiving permission to beneficially use public waters.
APPROVAL
the granting of an application made to the State Engineer. Upon approval, the water right becomes appurtant to its place of use.
APPURTENANT
belonging to.
APPURTENANT STRUCTURE
outlet works, spillway, access structure, bridges and other related structures to a dam.
APPURTENANT TO PLACE OF USE
a characterisitc of a water right such that when the land served is sold, the water right is automatically included in the sale, unless specifically exempted in the deed.
AQUACULTURE
science and business of cultivating food fish or shellfish for commercial purposes or for sport.
AQUEDUCT
pipe, conduit or channel designed to transport water from a remote source.
AQUIFER
a layer of soil or rock that stores and/or transmits water. A CONFINED AQUIFER is bounded above and below by layers of less permeable material where the saturated thickness is bounded by the both layers. An UNCONFINED AQUIFER is similar, but the saturated thickness is not bounded by an upper layer.
ARABLE LAND
capable of being cultivated and suitable for crop production.
AREA-CAPACITY CURVE
graph showing the relation between the surface area of the water in a reservoir, the corresponding volume, and elevation.
ARID
region where precipitation is so deficient that agriculture is impracticable without irrigation.
ARTESIAN
an aquifer in which the static water level in a well stands above the top of the aquifer.
ARTESIAN WELL
a well which taps an artesian aquifer.
ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE
addition of water to the ground-water reservoir by activities of man.
A.S.C.E.
American Society of Civil Engineers.
ASSESSMENT
amount of money a shareholder in a mutual irrigation company pays to the company to cover his portion of the costs of company operations.
ASSIGN
to transfer all of an interest in personal property.
ASSIGNMENT
transfer of an unperfected water right from one person or entity to another.
ASSIMILATION
ability of a body of water to purify itself of pollutants.
ATTENUATION
term used to describe the slowing, modification or diversion of the flow of water.
A.W.R.A.
American Water Resources Association.
A.W.W.A.
American Water Works Association.
AXIS OF DAM
the vertical plane which traces the centerline of the crest of a dam.
BACKFLOW
backing up of water in the direction opposite to normal flow.
BACKWATER
in stream gaging, a rise in stage produced by a temporary obstruction or by the flooding of the stream below.
BAFFLE
flat board, deflector or similar device constructed or placed in flowing water to reduce turbulance and cause more uniform flow velocities.
BANK
slope of land adjoining a body of water. With respect to flowing waters, banks are right or left as viewed facing in the direction of the flow.
BASE FLOW
fair-weather or sustained flow of streams.
BASELINE DATA
quantitative level or value from which other data and observations of a comparable nature are referenced.
BASIN
geographic area drained by a single major stream--also referred to as DRAINAGE BASIN.
BED
bottom of a body of water.
BEDLOAD
material in movement along a stream bottom, or the surface, if by wind.
BEDROCK
solid rock that lies beneath soil, loose sediments or other unconsolidated material.
BENCHMARK
1) data used as a base for comparative purposes with comparable data. 2) a permanent physical mark of known horizontal coordinates and elevation.
BENEFICIAL USE
use of water for one or more of the recognized purposes including but not limited to, domestic, municipal, irrigation, hydropower generation, industrial, commercial, recreation, fish propagation, and stockwatering; it is the basis, measure and limit of a water right.
BERM
narrow ledge or shelf along or extending into a stream channel
B.I.A.
U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.
B.L.M.
U.S. Bureau of Land Management.
BRAIDED STREAM
complex tangle of converging and diverging stream channels separated by sandbars or islands.
BREACH
opening or a breakthrough in a dam or dike.
BRINE
water saturated with or containing large amounts of a salt in excess of 35,000 mg/l.
BROOK
natural stream of water, smaller than a river or creek.
CALIBRATED WATERSHED
watershed with sufficient precipitation and streamflow measuring devices and records to allow for computations of the relationships between precipitation and streamflow.
CAMBER
additional material placed on the dam crest to protect design freeboard from anticipated settlement.
CANAL
constructed open channel for transporting water.
CAPACITY
1) maximum volume that can be stored in a reservoir below the primary spillway level. 2) the flow of water a well is able to produce per foot of waterlevel drawdown in the well casing. 3) the flow of water a natural stream channel is able to carry in non-flood conditions.
CAPTURE
decrease in discharge from an aquifer plus the increase in recharge.
CASING
tubular structure that is installed in the borehole to maintain a well opening.
CATCHMENT AREA
1) intake area of an aquifer. 2) reservoir or basin developed for flood control or water management for livestock or wildlife.
CATHODIC PROTECTION
a method of protecting well casings from corrsion.
CAVITATION
1) process of erosion in a stream channel or conduit caused by sudden collapse of vapor bubbles against the channel wall. 2) wear on a hydraulic structure where a high hydraulic gradient is present.
CEASE AND DESIST ORDER
a formal written order from the State Engineer to refrain from the continued performance of an illegal act.
CERTIFICATE
official document that serves as evidence of a perfected water right, which is recorded with the local County Recorder.
C.F.S. (cubic foot per second, or second-foot)
a unit of flow measurement equal to one cubic foot per second past a given point, or 448.8 gallons per minute.
CHAIN
surveyor's measure equal to 66 feet.
CHAIN OF TITLE
a chronological list of documents comprising the record history of title to a specific parcel of real property.
CHANGE
process by which a water right is altered with respect to point of diversion, period, place or nature of use.
CHANNEL
natural or artificial open conduit that periodically or continuously contains moving water, or that forms a connecting link between two bodies of water.
CHANNELIZATION
straightening and deepening a stream so water will move faster.
CHECK DAM
small dam constructed in a gully or small watercourse to decrease the streamflow velocity or to divert water from a channel.
CIPOLETTI WEIR
a weir of trapeziodial design for the measurement of open channel flow.
CLOSED BASIN
basin without a surface outlet.
C.O.E.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
COFFERDAM
temporary watertight enclosure that is pumped dry to expose the bottom of a body of water.
COLLECTION PIPE
conduit used to collect seepage waters from drainage blankets and drains and convey the water to a point downstream of the dam.
COLORADO RIVER COMPACT
a 1922 agreement among seven states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Wyoming and Utah) as to the general allocation of the waters of the Colorado River.
COMPACT
agreement between states, ratified by Congress, providing for the division and apportionment of waters of an interstate river, aquifer or body of water.
CONDUIT
1) natural or artificial channel, either open or closed, through which water may be conveyed. 2) closed channel to convey water through, under or around a dam.
CONE OF DEPRESSION
cone-like depression of the water table formed in the vicinity of a well by withdrawal of water.
CONFLUENCE
meeting or junction of two or more streams.
CONJUNCTIVE USE
combined use of surface and ground water systems to optimize resource use and minimize adverse effects of using a single source.
CONSOLIDATED AQUIFER
aquifer made up of consolidated rock.
CONSUMPTIVE USE
portion of water withdrawn from a surface or groundwater source that is consumed by particular use(s) and does not return to a natural water source or another body of water.
CONTOUR LINE
line of constant elevation on a map or drawing.
CONTROL SECTION
section where flow passes through critical depth.
CONVEYANCE LOSS
loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation or evapotranspiration.
COURSE
route or path taken by flowing water.
CREST
top of a dam, dike, spillway or weir to which water must rise before passing over the structure.
CRITICAL DEPTH
depth at which flowing water transitions from tranquil to turbulant flow and vice versa.
CRITICAL MANANGEMENT AREA
a ground-water basin where water is being withdrawn in excess of the safe yield for which a ground-water management plan is being prepared or is in force.
CUBIC FEET PER SECOND (CFS)
See C.F.S.
CURRENT METER
instrument for measuring the velocity of water flowing in a stream, open channel or conduit.
CUTOFF COLLAR
projecting collar built around the outside of a pipe to lengthen the seepage path along the outer surface of the conduit.
DAM
artificial barrier or obstruction, together with appurtenant works, if any, which impounds or diverts water.
DAM INSPECTION
the inspection of a dam to determine safety. Performed by the Dam Safety Section of Division of Water Rights. Federal dams are exempt for state responsibility.
DEAD STORAGE
water in a reservoir that lies below the lowest outlet and cannot be withdrawn without pumping.
DECREED RIGHTS
water rights determined by a court decree.
DEED
written document transferring ownership of land from one person to another.
DEFORMATION ANALYSIS
a study of how a dam will permanently deform as a result of strains caused by seismic loads.
DEGRADATION
1) geologic process in which parts of the earth's surface, such as cliffs, rocks and streambeds, disintegrate. 2) removal of channel bed materials and downcutting of natural stream channels.
DENTAL CONCRETE
concrete used to smooth rough places in dam foundations and abutments.
DEPENDABLE SUPPLY
water that can be expected to be available at a time and place with the quality demanded.
DEPLETION
See Consumptive Use.
DESICCATION
loss of water from pore spaces of sediments through compaction or through evaporation caused by exposure to air; cracking of the soil due to shrinkage during drying.
DESICCATION CRACKS
surface fractures that can result from the drying of soil or porous sediment ary rock.
DIKE
an embankment to confine or control water.
DILIGENCE CLAIM
a claim to the use of surface water where the use was initiated prior to 1903.
DISALLOWED
the termination of a water right through the adjudication process.
DISCHARGE
outflow that is measured as the rate at which a volume of water passes a given point in a given period of time.
DISPERSIVE CLAYS
clays whose particles detach in the presence of water and may be transported by water.
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
an administrative unit, established by the State Engineer and supervised by an appointed Water Commissioner, for the distribution of water from the natural source according to the priority date of the respective water rights in a particular area.
DITCH RIDER
individual responsible for operating structures and distributes water internally within an irrigation project.
DIVERSION
removal of water from its natural source; turning aside or alteration of the natural course of a flow of water, normally considered physically to leave the natural channel.
DIVERSION DAM
barrier built to divert part or all of the water from a stream into a different course.
DIVINING ROD
forked branch or stick that is believed to indicate subterranean water by bending downward when held over a source.
DIVISION BOX
structure used to divide and direct the flow of water between two or more irrigation ditches.
DOMESTIC WATER USE
water used for inside household purposes only.
DOWSER
person who uses a DIVINING ROD.
DRAFT
water that is diverted.
DRAINAGE AREA
area or watershed that drains naturally to a particular point on a river, stream or creek.
DRAINAGE BASIN
see BASIN.
DRAINAGE BLANKET
permeable layer placed directly over the foundation material.
DRAWDOWN
1) lowering of the surface of a body of water by releases of water. 2) lowering of the elevation of the groundwater table.
DREDGING
method for deepening streams or other waters by scraping and removing solid materials from the bottom.
DRIP IRRIGATION
planned irrigation system in which water is applied directly to the root zone of plants by means of applicators operated under low pressure.
DROP STRUCTURE
physical obstruction placed within a stream channel for the purpose of stabilizing the channel; used to facilitate vertical downward movement of water without causing erosion.
DROUGHT
period of abnormally dry weather sufficiently prolonged to cause a serious hydrological imbalance.
DUTY OF WATER
quantity of water, determined by the State Engineer, required to satisfy the irrigation water requirements in a given area; based on the irrigation requirements of alfalfa.
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
analysis that predicts the stability and/or deformation of a dam due to seismic loads.
EFFLUENT
1) something that flows out, such as a stream flowing out of a body of water. 2) discharged wastewater.
EIS (Environmental Impact Statement)
detailed and formal evaluation of the favorable and adverse environmental and social impacts of a proposed project and its alternatives.
ELECTION TO FILE A WATER USERS CLAIM
a form used to allow the State Engineer to file proof of appropriation on a water right through the adjudication process. No longer used.
ELU (Equivalent Livestock Unit)
a standardized measure related to the watering of various sized livestock. (1 ELU = 1 large animal or 5 medium animals or 33 1/3 small animals)
EMBANKMENT
artificial deposit of material that is raised above the natural surface of the land and used to contain, divert or store water.
EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN
predetermined plan of action to be taken to reduce the potential for loss of life and property damage in an area affected by a dam break.
EMERGENCY SPILLWAY
secondary spillway designed to convey excess water generated by unusual hydrological events through, over or around a dam.
EMINENT DOMAIN
right of a government to appropriate private property for public use.
ENDANGERED SPECIES
any plant or animal species threatened with extinction by man-made or natural changes throughout all or a significant area of its range.
E.P.A.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
EPHEMERAL STREAM
stream that flows only in direct response to precipitation.
EROSION
wearing away and removal of materials of the earth's crust by natural means. Examples are STREAMBANK and STREAMBED (scouring of material and cutting of channel banks and beds); SHEET (removal of a thin layer by runoff waters); RILL (numerous small channels are formed); GULLY (widening and deepening of small channels).
ESCARPMENT
steep slope that results from erosion or faulting and separates two relatively level areas of differing elevations.
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
evaporation of liquid or sublimination of solid water plus transpiration from plants.
EXCHANGE
1) release of water into a stream, reservoir or other body of water in exchange for a like quantity withdrawn at another point. 2) an application, made to the State Engineer, to facilitate the changing of water used under contract from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation or similar entity.
EXIT CHANNEL
open channel, located downstream from any conduit or spillway, which conducts the flow to a point where it may be released without jeopardizing the dam.
EXTENSION
request for additional time to complete a water project, submit proof, resume use, submit information, or comply with an administrative proceeding or order. In those cases where the extension request involves the submission or proof: if the application was approved within the last 14 years, no advertising of the request is required; after 14 years, advertising is required.
FACE
in reference to a structure, the external surface that limits the structure.
FLASHBOARDS
lengths of timber, concrete or steel placed on the crest of a spillway to raise the water level, but that may be quickly removed in the event of a flood.
FLOOD
1) temporary rise in streamflow or stage that results in significant adverse effects in the vicinity. 2) an overflow on lands.
FLOOD PLAIN
relatively flat area bordering a stream or adjoining a body of standing water that may be overflowed during times of high water.
FLOOD ROUTING
computation of the changes in the rise and fall in stream flow or reservoir levels as a flood moves downstream.
FLOOD STAGE
stage or elevation in which overflow of the natural banks of a stream or body of water begins.
FLOW
rate of water discharged from a source given in volume with respect to time.
FLOW MODEL
see Ground-water Flow Model.
FLOWING WELL
artesian well having sufficient head to discharge water above the land surface.
FLOWLINE
lowest point in a water conveyance structure where water can flow.
FLUME
open artificial channel or chute carrying a stream of water, or as a measuring device.
FLUVIAL
of or pertaining to rivers and streams.
FOREBAY
a storage basin, usually adjacent to a larger reservoir, for regulating water; a storage basin for the percolation surface water into groundwater basins.
FORFEITURE
potential loss of a water right because of five or more years of non use, usually determined by a court.
FOUNDATION OF DAM
natural material on which the dam structure is placed.
FREEBOARD
vertical distance between the design maximum water level and the top of a structure.
FRICTION LOSS
total energy loss in the flow of water due to friction between the water and walls of a conduit or channel.
GABION
wire cage, usually rectangular, filled with cobbles and used as a component for water control structures or for channel and bank protection.
GAGE (GAUGE)
instrument used to measure the elevation of a water surface, velocity of flowing water, or pressure of water.
GAGING STATION
particular site on a stream, canal, lake or reservoir where systematic observations of height or discharge are obtained.
GALLERY
permanent accessible structure within the interior of a dam used for seepage collection, monitoring and remedial work.
GATE
structure or device for controlling the rate of water flow into or from a canal, ditch or pipe.
GEOHYDROLOGY
branch of hydrology relating to waters below the earth's surface.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
generally refers to the USGS.
GEOMEMBRANE
geosynthetic fabric that is designed to be an impermeable barrier.
GEOTEXTILE
geosynthetic fabric that is designed to be a filter, a drain, act as reinforcement, or for separation.
GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE
natural heat energy found below the surface of the earth.
GIS
Geographic Information System
GRADE
slope of a stream bed.
GPS
Global Positioning System
GRADIENT
degree of incline; slope of a stream bed.
GRAVITY FLOW
any downhill flow of water generated by the force of gravity.
GROIN
area along the contact or intersection of the face of a dam with the abutments.
GROUND-WATER BASIN
groundwater reservoir together with all the overlying land surface and underlying aquifers that contribute water to the reservoir.
GROUND-WATER FLOW MODEL
digital computer model that calculates a hydraulic head field for the modeling domain using numerical methods to arrive at an approximate solution to the differential equation of ground-water flow.
GROUND-WATER MANAGEMENT PLAN
a plan promulgated by the State Engineer to control the withdrawal of ground water for the purpose of preventing or correcting ground-water mining.
GROUND-WATER MINING
see MINING (GROUND WATER).
GROUND WATER RECHARGE
inflow of water to a ground water reservoir from the surface.
GROUT CURTAIN
barrier to reduce seepage under a dam.
GROUT
fluid mixture of cement and water of a consistency that can be forced into a pipe, well or dam foundation and placed as required.
GUZZLER
manmade rain collection and storage device for watering livestock and wildlife in remote locations.
HEAD
1) difference in elevation in a pipe between intake and discharge points; a direct indocator of pressure. 2) height difference of the water level at the headworks or upstream point of a waterway, and the water surface at a given point downstream. 3) a measure of the energy in water as a result of its elevation, pressure and velocity.
HEAD LOSS
decrease in total head caused by friction, a drop in pressure, a lowering of elevation or a decrease in velocity.
HEADGATE
gate that controls water flow into irrigation canals and ditches.
HEADWATERS
1) source and upper reaches of a stream or reservoir. 2) small streams that come together to form a river.
HEAT EXCHANGE
the process that transfers heat from a relatively low-temperature reservoir to one at a higher temperature, usually transfering the heat in ground-water reservoir for the space heating of a building.
HISTORIC FLOW
flow that has occurred and was, or would have been, recorded at a gaging station.
HUNDRED-YEAR FLOOD
see ONE HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD.
HYDRAULIC FRACTURING
fracturing of soil materials due to excessive fluid pressures.
HYDRAULIC HEAD
see HEAD.
HYDRAULIC HEIGHT
vertical dimension of a dam as measured from the natural streambed at the downstream toe to the elevation of the water surface at the crest of the primary spillway.
HYDRAULICS
science of the static and dynamic behavior of fluids.
HYDROGRAPH
graphical representation of discharge, stage, volume, or other hydraulic property of a river, creek, or stream, with respect to time, for a particular location.
HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY
1) instrumental survey to measure and determine characteristics of streams and other bodies of water within an area. 2) position and elevation of high water marks. 3) location and depth of wells. 4) the mapping of the places of use of water rights involved in an adjudication proceeding.
HYDROLOGIC BASIN
see BASIN.
HYDROLOGIC CYCLE
circuit of water movement from the atmosphere to the earth and return to the atmosphere through various stages or processes such as precipitation, interception, runoff, infiltration, percolation, storage, evaporation and transportation.
HYDROLOGY
study of the properties, distribution and movement of water on the earth's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere.
HYDROMETER
instrument used to determine specific gravity, especially a sealed, graduated tube, weighted at one end.
HYDROPOWER
electric power produced by falling water.
IMPERMEABLE
unable to transmit water; not easily penetrated.
IMPERVIOUS
incapable of being penetrated by water.
IMPOUNDMENT
body of water confined by a dam, dike or other barrier.
INCIDENTAL RECHARGE
ground water recharge that occurs as a result of human activities unrelated to a recharge project.
INCREMENTAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT (IDA)
analysis showing the influence of a dam failure when superimposed on an extreme hydrologic event.
INFILTRATION RATE
rate at which a given soil can accept surface water.
INFLOW
act or process of flowing, or something that flows, in or into.
INFLOW DESIGN FLOOD (IDF)
flood hydrograph that is used to size a dam's spillway.
INJECTION
refers to a system of artificially introducing surface water into the ground water system as a means of storage or recharge.
INJECTION WELL
injects water directly into a designated aquifer.
INLET CHANNEL
open channel upstream from a spillway or conduit.
INSTREAM FLOW
non-consumptive water requirements or uses that do not require diversion from its natural watercourse nor reduce the water supply.
INTERFERENCE
condition occurring when the area of influence of a water well comes into contact with or overlaps that of a neighboring well.
INTERMITTENT STREAM
a natural watercourse where the flow stops and starts at intervals .
INTERNAL EROSION
see PIPING.
INTERSTATE COMPACT
see COMPACT.
INTERSTICES
openings or pore spaces in a rock.
INUNDATION MAP
map showing areas that would be subject to flooding due to storm conditions or failure of a dam.
IRRECOVERABLE LOSSES
water lost to a salt sink or lost by evaporation or evapotranspiration.
IRRIGATION
The controlled application of water to land to supplement that supplied by nature.
JETTY
structure extending into a sea, lake or river to protect the shore or bank.
JOINT TENANCY
a form of co-ownership by two or more persons in equal shares characterized by the by the incident of survivorship.
LAPSE
invalidation of a water right application for failure to show proof of benefical use, meet a deadline, honor a respond from further information, comply with conditions set in a State Engineer's Order or for other reasons.
LATERAL
irrigation conveyance structure intended to convey water away from the main canal or ditch.
LEACHING
process by which soluble materials in the soil, such as salts, nutrients, chemicals or contaminants are washed into a lower layer of soil or are dissolved and carried away by water.
LEFT (OR RIGHT) BANK
left- or right-hand side of a stream when the observer faces downstream.
LEVEE
natural or man-made earthen obstruction along the edge of a stream, lake or river.
LIQUEFACTION
1) act or process of making or becoming liquid. 2) sudden loss of strength or stiffness of a saturated soil resulting from dynamic loading as from earthquakes.
LITTORAL
region along the shore of a non-flowing body of water.
LOAD
amount of solid material that a stream is actually carrying at a given time.
LOG BOOM
floating device intended to prevent large floating debris from being carried into a spillway.
LOSING STREAM
stream or reach of a stream that is losing water by seepage into the ground.
LOW LEVEL OUTLET
conduit from a reservoir, generally used for lowering the reservoir or for providing downstream releases.
LOWER BASIN STATES (Colorado River Compact)
Arizona, Nevada and California.
LYSIMETER
instrument used to measure the quantity or rate of downward water movement through a block of soil.
M & I WATER USE
water supplied for municipal and industrial uses provided through a municipal distribution system.
MAINSTEM
major reach of a river or stream formed by the smaller tributaries that flow into it.
MANOMETER
instrument for measuring pressure.
MAXIMUM CAPACITY
maximum volume of water that can be stored in a reservoir when filled to the crest of the dam.
M.C.E.
maximum credible earthquake.
MEAN DEPTH
average depth of water in a stream channel or conduit. It is equal to the cross-sectional area divided by the surface width.
MEANDER
turn of a stream, either live or cut off; winding of a stream channel.
MEANDER LINE
line delineated by survey for the purpose of defining the bends or windings of the banks of a stream or lake.
MEASURING WEIR
shaped notch, typically rectangular, trapezoidal or triangular, through which flowing water is measured.
METEORIC WATER
ground water derived primarily from precipitation.
METEOROLOGY
science that deals with the phenomenon of the atmosphere, especially weather .
MILLRACE
fast-moving stream of water that drives a mill wheel.
MINER'S INCH
an old term for the rate of discharge through an orifice one inch square under a specific head; in Utah, it equals 0.020 cfs.
MINING (GROUND WATER)
withdrawal of water from a ground water source at a rate greater than its rate of recharge.
MITIGATION
action designed to lessen or reduce adverse impacts.
MODEL
simulation, by descriptive, conceptual, statistical or other means, of a process or thing that is difficult or impossible to observe directly. The concept is to approximate reality by means of a quantifiable process. In this way the mod el may be used to simulate various changes in conditions in a "what if" or predictive framework.
MOISTURE EQUIVALENT
percentage ratio of weight of water which the soil, after saturation, will retain against a centrifugal force 1,000 times the force of gravity, to weight of the soil when dry.
MONITOR WELL
well used to measure groundwater levels or obtain water quality samples.
MORAINE
accumulation of boulders, stones or other debris carried and deposited by a glacier.
MOVABLE BED
stream bed made up of materials readily transportable by the streamflow.
MULTIPLE USE
coordinated management of various surface and subsurface resources, without impairment of the land, that will best meet the present and future needs of the people.
MUNICIPAL DISCHARGE
product resulting from the treatment of sewage and other pollutants by a publicly owned treatment works.
MUNICIPAL WATER
water used by a municipality within its municipal limits and/or service area.
NAPPE
free-falling stream from a weir.
NARROWS
1) water channel with little width that connects two larger bodies of water. 2) part of a river that is not wide.
NATURAL FLOW
rate of water movement past a specified point on a natural stream from a drainage area for which there have been no effects caused by upstream diversion, storage, import, export or return flow.
NATURAL RECHARGE
replenishment of groundwater storage from naturally-occurring surface water supplies such as precipitation and stream flows.
NATURAL RESOURCE
material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value. They are considered NONRENEWABLE when they do not naturally replenish themselves within the limits of human time, or RENEWABLE when they are more or less continuously replenished in the course of natural events within the limits of human time.
NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE(NRCS)
formerly Soil Conservation Service.
NATURE CONSERVANCY (The)
an international conservation organization that, through private donations, purchases lands and then either retains ownership or transfers ownership to other conservation groups.
NON-CONSUMPTIVE
where water is not consumed during the course of a beneficial use, such as fish cluture or hydroelectric power generation.
NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION
pollution discharged over a wide land area, not from one specific location, and carried to lakes and streams by surface runoff.
NON-POTABLE
water that is not suitable for drinking because of pollutants, contaminants, minerals or infective agents.
NON-USE
when a water right has not been used for a period of 5 years or more, it is said to be in a state of non-use and can be lost through the abandonment statute. Usually requires a court interpretation, especially where a state owned water right is concerned.
NON-USE APPLICATION
an application to the State Engineer where the water right holder, anticipating that the water will not be used for 5 years, seeks to protect his water right from forfeiture.
NONCONSUMPTIVE USE
water withdrawn for use that is not consumed, e.g., hydropower generation, recreation, instream flow.
NONPOROUS
no void spaces through which water could pass.
NONPRODUCTION WELL
a well used for the recharging, monitoring and/or testing of an aquifer system, heat exchanging to heat a building.
NORIA
a type of water wheel with buckets attached to its rim, used to raise water from a stream.
NORMAL FREEBOARD
vertical distance between the primary spillway overflow crest and the top of the dam.
N.R.C.S.
see NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE.
NOTICE OF VIOLATION
a formal written notice from the State Engineer that the noticee is in violation of the law.
N.W.S.
National Weather Service.
OBSERVATION WELL
well used to monitor changes in water levels of an aquifer and obtain samples for water quality analyses.
OBSTRUCTION
includes but not limited to any dam, dike, abutment, excavation, bridge, channelization, culvert, building, fence, rock, fill, structure, vegetation in, across, along or projecting into a watercourse that may alter, impede, retard or change the direction and/or velocity of the flow of water.
OFFSTREAM USE
water withdrawn or diverted from a ground or surface water source for use at another place.
ONE HUNDRED YEAR FLOOD
the flood having a one percent probability of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
ONE HUNDRED YEAR PRECIPITATION
the precipitation having a one percent probability of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
ORIFICE
used for the measurement or control of water, it is an opening with a closed perimeter. It is usually sharp edged and of regular form in a plate, wall or partition through which water may flow.
OUTFALL
place where a stream discharges; outlet or structure through which reclaimed water or treated effluent is discharged.
OUTLET
point where water exits from a stream, river, lake or artificial drain.
OVERDRAFT
see MINING (GROUND-WATER).
OXBOW
abandoned meander in a river or stream; used to describe the U-shaped bend in the river.
PARSHALL FLUME
device used to measure the flow of water in an open channel.
PARTIAL PENETRATION
well constructed in such a way that it draws water directly from a fractional part of the total thickness of the aquifer.
PARTICULATES
very small solids suspended in water.
PEAK FLOW
maximum instantaneous discharge of a stream or river at a given location.
PENSTOCK
gate or sluice used in controlling the flow of water; a tube or trough for carrying water to a water wheel.
PERCHED WATER TABLE
water table of a relatively small groundwater body supported above the general groundwater body.
PERCOLATING WATERS
underground waters whose course and boundaries are incapable of determination.
PERCOLATION
movement of water within a porous medium without a definite channel; entrance of a portion of the streamflow into the channel materials to contribute to groundwater replenishment; slow seepage of water through a filter.
PERENNIAL STREAM
stream that flows from source to mouth throughout the year.
PERFECTED WATER RIGHT
a fully developed water right that has been certificated the State Engineer, decreed by a court of law, or has been legislatively as such; is considered real property.
PERFORATION OF WELLS
holes in the casing of wells that allow water to flow into the well.
PERMANENT CHANGE APPLICATION
an application to the State Engineer where a water right holder seeks to permanently change the point of diversion, place of use, period of use, or nature of use of his water right.
PERMEABILITY
rate that water passes through soil or other materials in a specified direction. It is equal to velocity of flow divided by hydraulic gradient.
PERVIOUS ZONE
part of the cross section of an embankment dam comprising material of high permeability.
pH
measure of acidity or alkalinity of water.
PHREATIC
of or relating to ground water.
PHREATIC SURFACE
term equivalent to groundwater surface or the water table.
PIEZOMETER
instrument for measuring pore water pressure within soil, rock or concrete.
PIPING
progressive development of internal erosion of material by seepage.
PITOT TUBE
instrument used to measure the velocity of flowing water.
PLACE OF USE
specific location documented in the water right where the water is to be used.
PLUMB
weight on the end of a line, used to determine water depth.
PLUVIAL
having to do with rain.
POINT DISCHARGE
instantaneous rate of discharge, in contrast to the mean rate for an interval of time.
POINT OF DIVERSION
point specified in a water right from which water is diverted from a source.
POINT SOURCE
stationary or clearly identifiable source of a large individual water or air pollution emission.
POINT SOURCE POLLUTION
pollutants discharged from any identifiable point, including pipes, ditches, channels, sewers and containers of various types.
POLLUTION
any introduction into water of microorganisms, chemicals, wastes or wastewater in a concentration that makes the water unfit for its intended use.
PORE PRESSURE
pressure exerted by water in the void space of soil or rock.
POROSITY
measure of the water-bearing capacity of a formation.
POROUS INTERVAL
portion of a piezometer where infiltrating water is allowed to act on the device.
POTABLE WATER
water that is drinkable.
POTENTIAL YIELD
maximum rate at which a well will yield water under a stipulated set of conditions.
POTENTIOMETRIC SURFACE
surface that represents the static head; level to which water will rise in tightly cased wells.
POWER FILING
filing for electric power generation.
P.O.T.W.
publicly-owned treatment works; facilities for treatment of domestic sewage.
PRACTICABLY IRRIGABLE ACREAGE
standard for quantifying reserved water rights on an Indian reservation.
PRESCRIPTION
1) a legal term for a method of acquisition of title or the use of water by immemorial or long-term continued use; also refered to as positive prescription. 2) a legal term for a time limit beyond which an action, debt, or crime in no longer valid or enforceable; also refered to as negative prescription.
PRESCRIPTIVE RIGHT
a right sanctioned or authorized by long-standing use.
PRESSURE GAGE
device for registering the pressure of solids, liquids or gases.
PRESSURE HEAD
energy contained by fluid because of its pressure.
PRIMACY
term used to denote the rank of first; state delegated authority by federal government.
PRINCIPAL SPILLWAY
main spillway for normal operating conditions.
PRIOR APPROPRIATION DOCTRINE
system for allocating water, used in most western states. "First in time is first in right" means that the first person to take a quantity of water and put it to beneficial use has a higher priority than a subsequent user.
PRIORITY
concept that the person first using water has a better right to it than those commencing use later.
PRIORITY DATE
date of establishment of a water right.
PROBABLE MAXIMUM FLOOD (PMF)
flood that may be expected from the most severe combination of critical meteorologic and hydrologic conditions possible in the region.
PROBABLE MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION (PMP)
maximum amount of precipitation that could be expected to fall on a drainage under the most severe meteorologic condition.
PROOF DUE DATE
end of approval period for putting water to beneficial use.
PROOF OF APPROPRIATION
document that attests to the amount of water withdrawn for the uses specified in the application and that it has been put to beneficial use.
PROOF OF BENEFICIAL USE
see PROOF OF APPROPRIATION.
PROOF OF CHANGE
used in same manner as PROOF OF APPROPRIATION only applies to a change application.
PROTEST
A document that states opposition to the granting of a water right application. There are specific requirements for a protest to have legal standing. See Utah State Code section 73-3-7, 73-3-13, and Rule R655-6.
PROTESTANT
A person who has filed a protest to the granting of a water right application.
PROVISIONAL WELL
authorization to drill under a pending, unapproved water right, or for the purpose of determining characteristics of an aquifer; does not allow the water to be utilized.
PSEUDO STATIC ANALYSIS
approximate method for predicting the dynamic stability of a structure using static loads.
PUBLIC DOMAIN
all U.S. lands that the federal government obtained from: 1) the original 13 states, 2) the Louisiana purchase, 3) cession from Spain, 4) occupation of the Oregon Territory, 5) Mexican Cession, 6) purchase from Texas, 7) Gadsen Purchase, and 8) purchase of Alaska.
PUBLIC INTEREST
sometimes vague term which can affect water right applications if they would be contrary to the public interest or public welfare.
PUBLIC SUPPLY WATER
water withdrawn by and delivered to a public water system regardless of the use made of the water.
PUMP LIFT
distance between the ground water table and the overlying land surface.
PUMP TEST
test that is conducted to determine aquifer or well characteristics.
/a>QUANTIFICATION
the process of determining the exact size and limits of a water right, usually in acre-feet per year, based on beneficial use.
QUICKSAND
sand that is unstable due to the upward pressure and/or flow of water.
QUIT CLAIM DEED
a form of deed, containing no warranties, conveying the current right, title, and interest of the grantor in, and to, real property.
RACE
strong or swift current of water; an artificial channel built to transport water.
RACE NOTICE STATE
where there is a conflict between deeds to a property, states such as Utah will recognize the deed first recorded with the appropriate County Recorder.
RADIAL FLOW
flow of water in an aquifer toward a vertically oriented well.
RANGE LINE
in the U.S. Public Land Survey system, the grid lines running north and south.
RATING CURVE
curve showing the relation between gage height and discharge of a stream at a given gaging station.
RAW WATER
water direct from the source, ground or surface water, without any treatment.
REACH (OF RIVER)
generally, any length of river. More specific, a length of channel uniform in discharge depth, area and slope; length of channel for which a single gage affords a satisfactory measure of the stage and discharge; length of river between two gaging stations.
RECHARGE
introduction of surface or ground water into ground-water storage by natural or artificial means.
RECHARGE AREA
see RECHARGE ZONE.
RECHARGE BASIN
surface facility, often a large pond, used to increase the infiltration of surface water into a ground water basin.
RECHARGE ZONE
land area into which water can infiltrate into an aquifer relatively easily, replenishing the aquifer.
RECORD
to incorporate into the public records of the County Recorder; also the system of public records imparting constructive notice of title to claims, or interests, in real property.
RECORDER
mechanical apparatus that records a continuous record of a water level or other hydrologic factors.
RECYCLED WATER
water that is used more than one time before it passes back into the natural hydrologic system.
RED TAG
a formal written order to a well driller to cease operation until a violation of well drilling regulations is resolved.
REGIMEN
system or order characteristic of a stream; stream that has reached an equilibrium between erosion and deposition.
REGIONAL ENGINEER
employee of the State Engineer responsible for administering water rights in a particular region of the state.
REINSTATE
where the State Engineer rescinds his lapsing of an application on petition of the applicant; usually the priority date is reduced to the date of reinstatement.
REGULATION
artificial manipulation of the flow of a stream.
RENOVATE/REPLACE
to renovate or replace an existing well that has an existing water right. May be replaced within 660 feet without advetising.
REPAIR OF A WELL STRUCTURE
the modification or replacement of the casing, screens, seals, etc. of an existing well.
REPLACEMENT OF A WELL STRUCTURE
the abandonment of an existing well and the drilling of a new well in its stead.
RESERVED RIGHTS
category of federal water rights created when the federal government withdraws land from the public domain.
RESERVED RIGHTS DOCTRINE
legal rule that states when the federal government reserves public lands for a particular purpose, such as a national park, forest or Indian reservation, it also reserves sufficient water to accomplish that purpose, sometimes called the Winters Doctrine.
RESERVOIR
pond, lake or basin, either natural or artificial, for the storage, regulation and control of water.
RESERVOIR AREA
surface area of a reservoir when filled to a given water elevation.
RESERVOIR STAGE
measure of the depth or elevation of water in a reservoir relative to an established datum.
RESIDUAL FREEBOARD
vertical distance between the maximum water surface during a given hydrologic event and the top of the dam.
RESPONSE SPECTRUM
graphical representation of actual motions, including displacement, velocity and acceleration, caused by seismic events.
RETURN FLOW
part of a diverted flow that is not consumptively used and returns to its original source or another body of water.
RETURN SEEPAGE
water that percolates from canals and irrigated areas to underlying strata, raising the groundwater level, and eventually returning to natural channels.
REUSE
water that is discharged by one use and placed to another before leaving the physical control of the water right holder.
REVETMENT
facing of stone, concrete or sandbags used to protect a bank of earth from erosion; a retaining wall.
RIFFLE
shallow rapids in an open stream.
RIGHT OF SURVIVORSHIP
the right to succeed to the interest of a deceased.
RIPARIAN
pertaining to the banks of a river, stream, or other body of water as well as to plant and animal communities along such bodies of water.
RIPARIAN DOCTRINE
system for allocating water in the eastern United States, which gives owners of land along a stream or river an absolute prerequisite to a right to use water from that body of water.
RIPRAP
layer of large stones, broken rock, or precast blocks placed on the upstream slope of an embankment dam, on a reservoir shore, or on the sides of a channel, as a protection against waves, ice, and scour.
RISK ASSESSMENT
qualitative and qauntitative evaluation performed in an effort to define the risk posed to human health and/or the environment.
RIVER BASIN
term used to designate the area drained by a river and its tributaries.
RIVER COMMISSIONER
see WATER COMMISSIONER
ROD
surveyor's measurement equal to 16.5 feet.
ROUTING
1) derivation of an outflow hydrograph of a stream from known values of upstream flow, using the wave velocity and/or storage equation. 2) technique used to compute the effect of channel storage and channel movement on the shape and movement of a flood wave through a river reach.
RUNOFF
precipitation, snow melt or irrigation water that appears in surface streams or rivers.
SAFE YIELD
the amount of groundwater that can be withdrawn from a groundwater basin over a period of time without exceeding the long term recharge of the basin or unreasonably affecting the basin's physical and chemical integrity.
SALINE
term used to describe waters containing common salt, or sodium chloride.
SALTS
a common term for minerals that water picks up as it passes through the air, over and under the ground, and through household and industrial uses.
SALVAGED WATER
an obsolete term for a part of a particular stream or other water supply that is saved from loss, in respect to quantity or quality, and is retained and made available for use.
SATURATED FLOW
liquid flow of water in soils that occurs when the soil pores in the wettest part of the soil are completely filled with water and the direction of flow is from the wettest zone of higher head to one of lower head.
SATURATED ZONE
subsurface area in which all pores and cracks are filled with water under pressure greater than the atmosphere.
SATURATION POINT
point at which a soil or an aquifer will no longer absorb any amount of water without losing an equal amount.
SCOUR
erosive action of running water in streams, which excavates and carries away material from the bed and banks.
SEAL
an impermeable material placed in the annular space between the outermost water well casing and the drill hole to prevent inflow and movement of surface water or shallow ground water.
SECOND-FEET
see C.F.S.
SECTION
unit of land area, generally equal to one square mile or 640 acres. Thirty- six sections comprise a township.
SECTION 404
that section of the Clean Water Act delineating restrictions on dredging and filling of wetlands, and disruption of beds and banks of streams.
SEDIMENT
deposition of eroded materials carried by the waters of streams or lakes.
SEDIMENT LOAD
total sediment, including bedload, being moved by flowing water in a stream at a specified cross section.
SEDIMENT POOL
portion of a reservoir allotted to the accumulation of submerged sediment during the design life of the dam.
SEEPAGE
slow movement of water through small cracks or pores of a material into or out of a body of surface or subsurface water; loss of water by infiltration into the soil from a canal, ditches, laterals, reservoir or other body of water.
SEEPS
a spring having a very small discharge rate.
SEGREGATION
to split an existing water right into one or more separate water rights.
SEISMIC
pertains to an earthquake or earth vibration.
SETTLING BASIN
enlargement in the channel of a stream to permit the settling of materials carried in suspension.
SEWAGE REUSE
the capture of treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant before it leaves the control of the water right holder for the purpose of placing it to additional uses.
SHALLOW WELL
well with a pumping head of 30 feet or less.
SHARE
stock in a mutual irrigation company. Many irrigation companies exist in Utah which own water rights used by their share holders. The amount of water the company allows each share holder to divert is usually determined by the company stock shares owned or rented. Shares in an irrigation company are not water rights. The company collectively owns the water right(s), the benefits from which are distributed to the share holders. This is evidence of the holder's right to a portion of the water delivered by the company.
SHEET EROSION
removal of thin, fairly uniform layer of soil or materials from the land surface by the action of rainfall and runoff water.
SHERRIFF'S DEED
conveyance of title to a debtor's property as a consequence of an execution sale.
SHOAL
shallow place in a body of water.
SIERRA CLUB
national environmental organization founded in 1892.
SILT
sedimentary particles smaller than sand particles, but larger than clay particles.
SILTATION
deposition of finely divided soil and rock particles upon the bottom of stream and river beds and in reservoirs.
SINKHOLE
depression in the earth's surface caused by dissolving of underlying limestone, salt or gypsum.
SITE IDENTIFICATION (USGS)
15-digit number based on the grid system of latitude and longitude. First six digits denote degrees, minutes and seconds of latitude; next seven digits denote degrees, minutes and seconds of longitude; and the last two digits identify sites within a 1-second grid.
SKIMMING
diversion of water from a stream or conduit by a shallow overflow.
SLOPE PROTECTION
protection of an embankment slope against wave action or erosion.
SLOUGH
place of deep mud or mire; wet or marshy place; side channel or inlet as from a river.
SLUICE
artificial channel for conducting water, with a valve or gate to regulate the flow; body of water impounded behind a floodgate.
SLUMP
sliding or gravitational movement of an overlying layer of soil, typically from becoming saturated, and lying on a rock layer or other impermeable layer.
SLURRY WALL
material placed vertically in the ground to prevent the lateral movement of groundwater.
SMALL DAM
a dam inpounding 20 acre-feet or less, or 18 feet or less in height. Generally, used for overnight storage ponds or sprinkler pressurizing ponds.
SNOW SURVEY
process or operation of determining the depth, water content and density of snow at various selected points for the purpose of forecasting subsequent runoff.
SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT
amount of water that would be obtained if the snowpack was melted.
SNOWMELT
net decrease in water equivalent of the snowpack after allowing for increases due to precipitation.
SOLUTE
any material that is dissolved in another.
SOUNDING
measuring the depth of water.
SPILLWAY
open or closed channel, conduit or drop structure used to convey excess water past a dam.
SPRING
concentrated discharge of ground water coming out at the surface as flowing water.
SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
pressurized irrigation system where water is distributed through pipes and applied through a variety of sprinkler heads or nozzles.
STAFF GAGE
graduated scale used to indicate the height of the water surface in a stream channel, reservoir or lake.
STAGE
height of a water surface above some established reference point at a given location.
STANDARD OPERATING PLAN
written procedure outlining the operation and maintenance of a dam and its appurtenant structures and equipment.
STANDPIPE
large vertical pipe 1) into which water is pumped in order to produce a desired pressure or 2) from which water is allowed to flow to relieve excess pressure in a pipe network.
START CARD
an intention to drill card supplied by the applicant to the driller to be submitted to the agency when the driller starts construction.
STATE ENGINEER
official charged with the administration of water appropriation and distribution within the state.
STATIC HEAD
difference in elevation in feet between the water surface of the body of water being pumped and the centerline of the discharge pipe at the point of release.
STATIC LEVEL
stabilized water level in a nonpumped well beyond the area of influence of any pumping well.
STEADY STATE
equilibrium condition in which the flow in equals the flow out.
STILLING BASIN
open structure or excavation at the foot of an overfall, chute, drop or spillway to dissipate excess energy of the descending stream or water emerging from a spillway or outlet.
STOCK CERTIFICATE
a certificate issued by an irrigation company representing ownerhsip in the assets of the company including water rights. An ASSESSMENT is required, based on shares owned, to pay the operating expenses of the company.
STOCK POND
impoundment, the principal purpose of which is to supply water to livestock.
STOPLOGS
beams placed on top of each other across a channel with their ends held in guides on each side of a channel or conduit to raise the upstream water level.
STORAGE
water artificially impounded in surface or underground reservoirs for future use; water naturally detained in a drainage basin.
STORAGE CAPACITY
volume of water that can be stored at the elevation of the primary spillway, including both active and dead storage.
STREAM ALTERATION
to obstruct, diminish, destroy, alter, modify, relocate or change the natural existing shape of the channel.
STREAM CHANNEL
natural water course of perceptible extent with definite beds and banks that confines and conducts continuously flowing water.
STREAM GAGING
quantitative determination of stream flow using gages, current meters, weirs or other measuring instruments at selected locations.
STREAM GAGING STATION
gaging station where a continuous record of the discharge of a stream is obtained.
STREAM REGIMEN
condition of a stream and its channel as it relates to erosive characteristics. It is "in regimen" if its channel has reached a stable form as the result of its flow characteristics.
STREAMBED
channel through which a natural stream of water runs or used to run.
STREAMFLOW
discharge that occurs in a natural channel.
STRUCTURAL HEIGHT
vertical dimension of a dam as measured from the natural streambed at the downstream toe of a dam to the top of a dam.
SUBLIMATION
change of a solid to a vapor (or the reverse) without the appearance of a liquid state.
SUBSIDENCE
sinking of an area of the earth's surface due to compaction of the underlying material.
SURFACE SUPPLY
water supply from streams, lakes and reservoirs.
SURFACE WATER
all waters whose surface is naturally exposed to the atmosphere, e.g., rivers, lakes, reservoirs, impoundments, springs.
SURPLUS WATER
developed water supplies in excess of contract entitlement or apportioned water.
SURVEY MARKER
permanent physical mark on a dam or appurtenant structure used to measure changes in horizontal and vertical movement.
SUSTAINED YIELD
see SAFE YIELD.
TAIL WATER
water immediately downstream from a structure; water that reaches the lower end of a field.
TAILINGS
waste material remaining after metal is extracted from ore.
T.D.S.
total dissolved solids.
TEMPORARY APPLICATION
an appliction to appropriate or change water which, if approved, is good for one year.
TENANCY IN COMMON
a form of co-ownership of property by two or more persons in undivided interest.
TERMINATED
the ending of a water right by an order of the court.
TEST BORINGS
holes drilled to determine the type and physical properties of subsurface materials.
TEST WELL
well hole drilled for experimental or exploratory purposes.
THALWEG
subsurface, groundwater stream percolating beneath and in the general direction of a surface stream; lowest thread along the axial part of a valley.
TILTING GATE
hinged gate counterbalanced by weights that automatically opens and closes with a change in head.
TIME OF CONCENTRATION
time required for water to flow from the farthest point on the water shed to the gaging station or other point of interest.
TOE OF DAM
junction of a dam face with the foundation. For an embankment dam, the junction of the upstream face with ground surface is called the upstream toe--the downstream junction is called the downstream toe.
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS
maps with lines showing a region's relief and position of natural and man-made features.
TOTAL HEAD
energy contained by fluid because of its pressure, velocity and elevation.
TOTAL STORAGE
volume of storage below the maximum designed water surface level, including dead storage.
TOTALIZING METER
water measuring device that registers or accumulates total volume resulting from a flow.
TOWNSHIP
territorial subdivision six miles long by six miles wide; contains 36 sections.
TOWNSHIP LINE
in the U.S. Public Land Survey system, the grid lines running east and west.
TRACT
an expanse of land or water.
TRANSITION ZONE
zone of material used to provide filter requirements between two zones of material which do not meet filter requirements.
TRANSMISSIVITY
ability of an aquifer to transmit water; values are given in gallons per minute through a vertical section of an aquifer one foot wide and extending the full saturated height of an aquifer.
TRANSPIRATION
process by which water escapes from a living plant.
TRANSPORT
conveyance of solutes and particles in flow systems.
TRASH RACK
screen located at an intake to prevent entry of floating or submerged debris .
TREMIE
device used to place concrete or grout under water.
TREMIE PIPE
device that carries materials to a designated depth in a drill hole or annular space.
TRIBUTARY
stream that joins another stream or body of water.
TURBID
water containing suspended matter that interferes with the passage of light through the water or in which visual depth is restricted.
TURBULENCE
state of fluid flow in which instantaneous velocities exhibit irregular and apparently random fluctuations.
UNAPPROPRIATED WATER
public water of the state in streams, rivers, lakes, springs or groundwater in excess of that necessary to satisfy prior existing water rights.
UNCONFINED AQUIFER
aquifer containing water that is not under pressure; water level in a well is the same as the water table outside the well.
UNDERGROUND WATER CLAIM
a claim to the use of underground water where the use was initiated prior to 1935.
UNGATED OUTLET
outlet that allows uncontrolled flow through or around a dam.
UNIT HYDROGRAPH
hydrograph that shows the rates at which runoff occurs for one inch of storm runoff from a drainage area.
UPLIFT
upward water pressure in the pores of a material or on the base of a structure.
UPPER BASIN STATES (Colorado River Compact)
Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming.
U.S.B.R.
U.S. Bureau of Reclamation.
U.S.F.S.
U.S. Forest Service.
U.S.F.W.S.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
U.S.G.S. (U. S. Geological Survey)
agency established in 1879. The Water Resources Division is involved in data gathering, interpretation, analysis and research.
V-NOTCH
type of weir for gaging discharge in small streams; narrow ravine or valley.
VADOSE ZONE
zone containing water under less than atmospheric pressure. It extends from land surface to the zone of saturation or water table.
VELOCITY
time rate of motion; distance traveled in a unit of time, usually in feet per second.
VENTURI METER
meter for measuring flow of water; consists of a closed conduit that gradually contracts to a throat, causing a pressure head by which the velocity may be determined.
VESTED WATER RIGHT
a legal term for a certificated or perfected water right.
VORTEX
revolving mass of water that forms a whirlpool.
WARRANTY DEED
a deed containing express covenants as to good title and right to possession.
WATER COMMISSIONER (also referred to as RIVER COMMISSIONER)
an employee of the State Engineer charged with distributing water from its natural source to water right holders within an established distribution system.
WATER CYCLE
cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the Earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water, condenses, precipitates and returns to those bodies of water.
WATER DUTY
see DUTY OF WATER.
WATER EXPORTS
water that is appropriated from sources within the state of Utah and used outside the state.
WATER MARKETING
the trading of water rights in an open market.
WATER PURVEYOR
anyone who sells drinking water to the public, usually the owner of a public water supply system.
WATER QUALITY
term used to describe the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water in respect to its suitability for a particular purpose.
WATER RIGHT
the right to use water diverted at a specific location on a water source, and putting it to recognized beneficial uses at set locations.
WATER SHARE
see SHARE.
WATER SUPPLIER
one who owns or operates a public water system.
WATER TABLE
upper surface of a saturated zone, where the body of ground water is not confined by an overlying impermeable formation.
WATER USERS CLAIM
a claim to the use of water which is submitted to the court in connection with an adjudicative procedure.
WATER WITCH
person who predicts the presence of underground water with hand-held tools such as forked twigs or metal rods.
WATER YEAR
generally, October 1 through September 30. It is designated by the calendar year in which it ends.
WATERCOURSE
any natural or artificial channel through which water flows at least periodically.
WATERMARK
mark showing the greatest height to which water has risen.
WATERMASTER
person hired by a group of water right holders or a water company to distribute and oversee available water supplies.
WATERSHED
all lands enclosed by a continuous hydrologic drainage divide and lying upsl ope from a specified point on a stream.
WATERSTOPS
strips of material used to prevent leakage through joints between adjacent sections of concrete.
WEIR
device for determining the quantity of water flowing over it.
WEIR BOX
wooden or concrete box oblong in shape and open at both ends, set lengthwise in a canal and in which a weir is set crosswise.
WELL
horizontal or vertical excavation or opening into the ground made by digging , boring, drilling, jetting or driving for utilizing or monitoring underground waters.
WELL CAPACITY
maximum rate at which a well will yield water under given conditions
WELL DEVELOPMENT
application of a surging or brushing process to a well to draw fine material from the aquifer and increase its discharge capacity.
WELL DRILLER
any person duly licensed that constructs a well for compensation or otherwise.
WELL DRILLING
act of drilling, constructing, repairing, renovating or deepening, cleaning, developing or abandoning a well.
WELL DRILLING RIG OPERATOR
a person who physically operates well drilling equipment under the direction of a licensed well driller.
WELL FIELD
tract of land that contains a number of wells for supplying a large municipality, irrigation district or a heat exchange system.
WELL INTERFERENCE
effects of neighboring pumping wells on the discharge and drawdown at a particular pumping well.
WELL LOG
official report of well construction submitted by well drillers which includes a description of the various formations and rock materials and the depths at which they are encountered.
WELLHEAD
1) source of a well or stream. 2) physical structure, facility, or device at the land surface from or through which ground water flows or is pumped from subsurface, water-bearing formations.
WET LINE
length of sounding line below the water surface when measuring the depth of a lake or stream.
WETLANDS
those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency administer the Section 404 permit program.
WILDERNESS
undeveloped land and associated water resources, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural condition.
WING WALL
side walls of a structure used to prevent sloughing of banks or channels and to direct and confine bank material.
WINTERS DOCTRINE
U.S. Supreme Court 1908 decision that established the doctrine of federal reservation rights.
ZONE OF INFLUENCE
area surrounding a pumping well within which the water table has been changed due to ground water withdrawal.
ZONE OF SATURATION
underground region within which all openings are filled with water; top of the zone is called the water table.